In discovering the evolution of cattle domestication, we can learn how such a cheap and accessible meat dish such as a Big Mac from McDonald’s came to be. In turn, this helped me understand why it is increasingly difficult for people to take on vegetarian diets.
Neolithic ~ Pre-Industrial
-10,000 years ago, the Mesopotamian people domesticated cattle.
-they used them sparingly for meat, dairy, clothing, more
-they worshipped cattle as spiritual offerings
-cattle grazed on pasture and were peaceful in their natural environment
-close relationship between humans and cattle because tribes were small and provided for themselves
-cattle became items of capital rather than sustenance
-mass-production from centralized locations allowed for efficiency and increase in per-capita consumption
-introduction of antibiotics allowed for growth efficiency and fatter cows
-life span of cattle before slaughter decreased from 4-5 years to ~1 year
-cattle consumed feeds containing grains, other animal remnants, and fecal matter
-cattle grazed on corn instead of grass to increase growth rate
-humans restricted their freedom to roam in pasture
Results From Changes in Domestication Practices
-cheap and accessible meat lead to overeating
-animal feeds caused outbreaks of mad cow disease
-animal feeds found to contain bacterias E. coli and salmonella
-overeating lead to health disorders: obesity, type II diabetes, coronary heart disease
It has become increasingly difficult for people in America to eat healthy or vegetarian diets because of this cheap and accessible meat available beginning the Industrial Revolution in the 1750s. As we see from the figures, developing countries such as China and India still have very low consumption of beef per capita. Thought it seems that as a country becomes more developed, consumption rates increase, United States demand in beef has been on the decline since the 1980s. Next week, I will discuss how the meat-packing industry has begun to reform its practices and how that correlates positively with diet changes in America.